Investors can choose to exclude a list of controversial countries or companies that do not comply with international agreements or treaties, such as producers of controversial weapons.
Sustainable asset managers have the primary duty to obtain a good performance for their clients, and want to achieve this in a sustainable way. Consequently, they tend to focus less on exclusion, but prefer to have a constructive dialogue with companies to encourage them to improve their sustainability performance. If companies are excluded from the outset, the asset manager can no longer exert any influence on them.
Ethically driven funds can take this further and exclude companies that do not comply with their moral beliefs, such as companies that are involved in deforestation or child labor.