In credit markets, valuation is reflected in the yield on the debt instrument. The bond yield represents the return to an investor who owns the bond and can be defined in various ways.
The current yield is one of the simplest representations of yield. It is the ratio of total annual cash flows to the bond holder relative to the current market price of the bond.
Current yield = Annual cash inflows/Market price
Should the price of a debt instrument trade lower owing to the view that it has become riskier, the yield on the debt instrument rises. For bonds with similar characteristics, those with higher perceived credit risk will trade at higher yields than those considered less risky.