Multi-Asset funds invest in multiple asset classes (e.g. stocks and bonds) as opposed to being limited to one asset class. This brings additional challenges for the risk management of such funds. Some examples:
Risk parity is a popular topic and is about dividing the risk budget equally across asset classes, between assets within asset classes, and/or across active investment decisions. This is different from equal money weights. For example, in a 50%-50% equity-bond portfolio the equities account for more than 95% of the portfolio volatility. You need a 25%-75% equity-bond portfolio to get an equal volatility contribution from equities and bonds. Risk parity, however, is also a difficult topic. E.g. in 2015 until July bond volatility had been on the rise whereas equity volatility was near all-time lows. Well-known risk-parity funds such as the one from Bridgewater as a result had increased their equity holdings at the expense of the bond holdings. Yet in August 2015 equities took a big hit and so did risk-parity funds.
A multi asset portfolio can also have hidden risks. E.g. on January 15, 2015, the Swiss central bank gave up the 3-year old currency peg of the Swiss Franc with the Euro. The result: A 20% appreciation of the Swiss Franc. At the same time the Swiss equity market took a large hit to the extent that for a foreign investor in Swiss equities it appeared nothing happened. Yet a multi asset portfolio shorting the Swiss Franc and overweighting Swiss equities took a double hit. Hence cross-asset correlations are an important source of risk.
As a reflection of investment risk, downside risk and drawdowns are much more important than volatility. Distributional downside risk measures are linked to distributional asymmetry, as reflected in skewness and lower partial moments, and specific tail risk measures. Drawdowns, in contrast, are composed of consecutive (or chained) returns and this cumulative return focus makes them difficult to analyze and manage.
Multi-Asset funds are growing fast. Robeco also puts in a large effort to grow in this area. Robeco already has several multi-asset funds. Through this internship we want to improve the risk management and portfolio construction of these funds beyond what we already have in place.
First let us stress that we expect an active contribution from you on what are the important questions and which are not. Hence you can help with extending the list of examples below or even replace the examples by topics that are deemed more relevant. Second, we use performance drivers including quantitative models in the multi-asset funds. Hence the impact of risk management on these performance drivers and with it fund returns is also of crucial importance.
Accar, E. & R. Toffel, 2000, “Stop-loss and Investment Returns”, working paper https://www.actuaries.org.uk/documents/stop-loss-and-investment-returns
Hallerbach, W.G., 2015, “Advances in Portfolio Risk Control.” Chapter 1 in E. Jurczenko (editor), “Risk-Based and Factor Investing” Elsevier/ISTE Press Ltd., London. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2259041
Kaminski, K. & A. Lo, 2014, “When Do Stop-Loss Rules Stop Losses”, Journal of Financial markets 18, pp.234-254
Lee, C.K, 2016, “Expected Drawdown Management: An Ex-Ante, Long-Term Approach to Portfolio Construction”, The Journal of Wealth Management 18/4 (Spring), pp.65-74
Magdon-Ismail, M. & A. Atiya, 2004, “Maximum Drawdown”, RISK Magazine 17/10 (October), pp.99-102
Shelton, A., 2016, “The Value of Stop-loss, Stop-gain Strategies in Dynamic Asset Allocation, Journal of Asset Management, Aug, pp.1-20